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Crowea exalata, commonly known as small crowea or waxflower,[2] is a flowering plant in the family Rutaceae and is endemic to the states of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria in Australia. It is an attractive small shrub and is a popular garden plant. It flowers mainly from late summer to mid-winter when few others are flowering but usually has some flowers at other times of the year.


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Crowea exalata is widely cultivated and is usually available in Australian native plant nurseries. It grows best in light soil, partly shaded from the sun and is an ideal rockery plant.[2] It is a hardy plant, especially when supplied with well-mulched soil and adequate water. Propagation is easier from cuttings because seeds must be nicked and held under running water for several weeks before sowing.[14]

Hopea exalata is a species of tree in the family Dipterocarpaceae. It is endemic to Hainan Island in southern China and enjoys second-class national protection.[2] Some authors consider H. exalata as a junior synonym of Hopea reticulata that is also known from Vietnam.[3] Hopea exalata produces Hopeanol.[4]

Hopeanolin (1), an unusual resveratral trimer with an ortho-quinone nucleus, was isolated and characterized from the stem bark of Hopea exalata. Also obtained were six known stibenoids, shoreaphenol (2), vaticanol G (3), alpha-viniferin (4), pauciflorol A (5), vaticanol A (6), and trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside (7). The structure of 1 was determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 1-7 were tested for antifungal activity and inhibitory effects against jack bean urease. Hopeanolin (1) demonstrated antifungal activity in the MIC value range 0.1-22.5 microg/mL.

Tigridiopalmaexalata S.Jin Zeng, Y.C.Xu & D.F.Cui: A plant B leaf base, abaxial view C opening flower, front view D petal, front view E longer stamens, side view F longer stamen, front view G short stamens, side view H short stamen, front view I opening flower, longitudinal section J hypanthium, with attached style, longitudinal section. Scale bars: 5 mm. Drawn by Ding-Han Cui.

Shrub to 1.5m tall. Leaves opposite each other, 4-10cm long, 5-25mm wide, flat, hairless, hairy, or rough, margins toothed to almost entire. Flowers with 4 petals, yellow-green to reddish, in clusters of 3-7 (7-15 in ssp. exalata var. laevis) at the bases of the leaves, or in leafy 'spikes' at the tops of the stems. Vulnerable Australia. Vulnerable NSW.

According to the NSW Department of Environment and Heritage profile, Haloragis exalata ssp. exalata has leaves 6-10cm long, 13-25mm wide. Haloragis exalata ssp. exalata var. exalata has stems and leaves finely rough to the touch, and 3-7 flowered clusters. Haloragis exalata ssp. exalata var. laevis has hairless stems and leaves and 7-15 flowered flower clusters. Haloragis exalata ssp. velutina has velvety leaves 5-6cm long and 6-8mm wide.

NSW Department of Environment and Heritage profile (ssp. exalata): =10392 Note that this description maintains the varieties as varieties of Haloragis exalata subsp. exalata, while the Australian Plant Census and PlantNET record them as Haloragis exalata var. exalata and Haloragis exalata var. laevis.

The Crowea exalata is a lovely, petite shrub that makes a lovely addition to any garden. It is evergreen, with fresh green leaves that are aromatic and beautiful. The Crowea exalata produces pink, star-shaped flowers for most of the year, making it a beautiful and fragrant shrub to have in your garden. The flowers can also be cut and used as indoor decorations, adding a touch of elegance to any room.

All species prefer to grow in a moist, well-drained position, with some protection from winds. A part-sun, part-shade, situation amongst other shrubs is ideal. However, plants of C.exalata have been growing in full sun without apparent problems. With full sun of course, plants need to be well watered Some form of mulching to retain moisture is a great help. Amazingly enough Crowea species adapt to a wide range of soils. They will accept liquid fertilizer used sparingly, at monthly intervals.

Crowea 'Poorlnda Ecstasy'. This is one of the most reliable cultivars and is stated to be a saligna x exalata hybrid. In overall appearance and habit, however, it appears to be a good form of Crowea saligna with pale pink flowers. Flowers are not over abundant.

Crowea exalata 'Austraflora Green Cape'. This is yet another dwarf form of Crowea exalata, low and spreading. It originates from the Green Cape area on the south coast of New South Wales. This one is only 0.15 metres tall by 0.6 metres across. The flowers are mauve, but as aging occurs, they may change to white, then to green.

Crowea are a beautiful and versatile Australian native shrub, and Crowea exalata Pink Starlet (Crowea exalata) is a lovely cultivar that makes an attractive specimen or hedge in the garden. Displaying attractive waxy pink star shaped flowers for most of the year, Crowea Pink Starlet grows well in a full sun to part shade position. Drought tolerant once established but required a well drained soil.

Hopeanol, isolated from Hopea exalata,is cytotoxic against a variety of tumor cells. Hopeanol is believedto be the biosynthetic precursor to hopeahainol A, which is a micromolarinhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (its synthesis is also presentedin the article, one step from F). The seriesof quite efficient cascade reactions led to racemic hopeanol ingood yield.

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