The Bet Of 2 ##TOP##
Bet v 2 contains many of the Fagales pollen specific-IgE epitopes. Therefore may substitute natural tree pollen extracts for diagnosis and for patient-tailored immunotherapy of tree pollen allergy (6).
The bet of 2
A study showed birch, alder, hornbeam, hazel, and oak pollen contain allergens that share IgE epitopes with Bet v 1 and Bet v 2. A combination of Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 can be reported on an average for 82% of tree pollen-specific IgE.(6).
Bet v 2 has been found to be cross-reactive with profilin allergens of almond (Pru du 4), apple (Mal d 4), celery(Api g 4), cherry (Pru av 4), hazelnut (Cora 2), kiwi (Act d 9), peanut (Ara h 5), Peach (Pru p 4), pear (Pyr c 4), potato (Sola t 8), soybean (Gly m 3) and walnut (Jug r 5). Bet v 2 and food allergens cross-reactivity is due to the presence of profilin proteins in food (2).
Profilin allergen such as from birch (Bet v 2) and timothy grass (Phl p 12) is highly cross-reactive in various plant-based pollen sources. In an allergic patient due to cross-reactivity with such other allergen sources may lead to the detection of specific-IgE (sIgE) during testing. Currently, standardized major allergen extracts are used for immunotherapies. Thus, for a profilin-reactive patient, this type of standard therapy may not be beneficial. IgE towards profilin in an allergic patient undergoing therapy should be monitored as it may be indicative of an increasing range of patient sensitivity towards other allergen sources (polysensitization) (10).
Sera from 12 patients allergic to grass pollen suffering from allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis was used for sIgE testing. High levels of SIgE towards Bet v 2 comparable to timothy grass pollen sIgE levels were observed. Even with such a reaction towards birch allergen the patients should undergo grass pollen-specific immunotherapy and not birch(11). In such cases, if initial diagnoses through sIgE testing are not performed, primary sensitization testing through natural pollen extracts may lead to misdiagnoses.
Birch allergen Bet v 2 is a profilin that performs actin-binding and controls cell division, differentiation, and growth. Profilins have been found to be highly cross-reactive allergens showing cross-reactivity with latex and food due to high sequence conservation. They have been named as pan-allergens due to the wide-spread cross-reactivity (12).
Bet v 2 have major IgE -reactive epitopes clustered on the N- and C-terminal α-helices and on a protein, segment containing two strands of the β-sheet. A change in the orientation of the N-terminal α helix in Bet v 2 has been found. This change in orientation alters the topography of one of the hydrophobic patches on the surface of the molecule, which is involved in the binding of proline-rich ligands. The common epitope areas are in regions with conserved sequence and secondary structure. These epitope areas overlap with the natural profilin ligand binding sites, showing that the ligand-free native profilin act across-sensitizing agent. (13)
A study regarding IgE binding showed Bet v 2 and Phl p 12 (timothy grass allergen) are fully cross-reactive. The study detected IgE units against Bet v 2 in the majority of patients like IgE units directed against Phl p 12. It is found that in patients with IgE to Bet v 2 and Phl p 12, both profilin allergens able to induce basophil activation to a similar extent.(9)
Profilin in general is involved in a wide range of cross-reactivities among plants, and patients sensitized to it react with a variety of plants and foods. Due to structural similarity, the cross-reactivity of IgE is considered to occur, rather than of amino acid sequence similarity. (7)
A study examined patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) against birch or timothy pollen. For IgE activity, recombinant allergens of birch (Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Bet v 4) and of timothy grass (Phl p 1/p 5b, Phl p 7, and Phl p 12) were tested against natural extracts of birch (t3) and timothy grass (g6). The study stated no difference was found in health-related quality of life (HRQL) between patients sensitized solely against major versus minor allergens in birch-allergic patients. In SAR minor allergen sensitization plays an important role (14).
Individuals sensitized to both profilin such as Bet 2, Phl p 12 and porcelains such as Bet v 4 and Phl p 7 will show positive results to almost all allergenic sources. This may cause a serious issue in diagnosing and administrating correct allergen-specific immunotherapy. In a study conducted on 106 patients were suspected of airborne and showed a positive response to Bet v 2 and/or Phl p 7. Only 9 showed hypersensitivity to both profilin and polcalcin. Out of these 7 reacted to multiple sIgE testing for sensitization to primary sources like mugwort, ragweed, birch, olive, etc (15).
Bad beat: Losing a bet you should have won. It's especially used when the betting result is decided late in the game to change the side that covers the spread. Also used in poker, such as when a player way ahead in the expected win percentage loses on the river (last card).
Buying points: Some bookies or sportsbooks will allow customers to alter the set line and then adjust odds. For example, a bettor might decide he wants to have his team as a 3-point underdog instead of the set line of 2.5. He has then "bought" half a point, and the odds of his bet will be changed.
Consensus pick: Derived from data accumulated from a variety of sportsbooks in PickCenter. The pick, and its percentage, provides insight as to what side the public is taking in a game.
Cover: The betting result on a point-spread wager. For a favorite to cover, it has to win by more than the spread; an underdog covers by winning outright or losing by less than the spread.
Favorite: The expected straight-up winner in a game or event. Depending on the sport, the favorite will lay either odds or points. For example, in a football game, if a team is a 2.5-point favorite, it will have to win by three points or more to be an ATS winner.
Fixed: A participant in a particular game who alters the result of that game or match to a completely or partially predetermined result. The participant did not play honestly or fairly because of an undue outside influence.
Futures bet: A long-term wager that typically relates to a team's season-long success. Common futures bets include betting a team to win a championship at the outset of a season, or betting whether the team will win or lose more games than a set line at the start of the season.
Halftime bet: A bet made after the first half ended and before the second half begins (football and basketball primarily). The oddsmaker generally starts with half of the game side/total and adjusts based on what happened in the first half.
Hedging: Betting the opposing side of your original bet, to either ensure some profit or minimize potential loss. This is typically done with futures bets, but can also be done on individual games with halftime bets or in-game wagering.
Limit: The maximum bet taken by a book. If a book has a $10,000 limit, it'll take that bet but the book will then decide whether it's going to adjust the line before the bettor can bet again.
Middle: When a line moves, a bettor can try to "middle" a wager and win both sides with minimal risk. Suppose a bettor bets one team as a 2.5-point favorite, then the line moves to 3.5 points. She can then bet the opposite team at 3.5 and hope the favorite wins by three points. She would then win both sides of the bet.
Oddsmaker (also linemaker): The person who sets the odds. Some people use it synonymous with "bookmaker" and often the same person will perform the role at a given book, but it can be separate if the oddsmaker is just setting the lines for the people who will eventually book the bets.
Off the board: When a book or bookie has taken a bet down and is no longer accepting action or wagers on the game. This can happen if there is a late injury or some uncertainty regarding who will be participating.
Over/under: A term that can be used to describe the total combined points in a game (the Ravens-Steelers over/under is 40 points) or the number of games a team will win in a season (the Broncos' over/under win total is 11.5). Also used in prop bets.
Parlay: A wager in which multiple teams are bet, either against the spread or on the money line. For the wager to win (or pay out), all of them must cover/win. The more teams you bet, the greater the odds.
Proposition (or prop) bet: A special or exotic wager that's not normally on the betting board, such as which team will score first or how many yards a player will gain. Sometimes called a "game within a game." These are especially popular on major events, with the Super Bowl being the ultimate prop betting event.
Push: When a result lands on the betting number and all wagers are refunded. For example, a 3-point favorite wins by exactly three points. Return on investment (ROI): In PickCenter, ROI is the amount (according to numberFire) that a bettor should expect to get back on a spread pick.
Steam: When a line is moving unusually fast. It can be a result of a group or syndicate of bettors all getting their bets in at the same time. It can also occur when a respected handicapper gives a bet his followers all jump on, or based on people reacting to news such as an injury or weather conditions.
Total: The perceived expected point, run or goal total in a game. For example, in a football game, if the total is 41 points, bettors can bet "over" or "under" on that perceived total.
Underdog: The team that is expected to lose straight up. You can either bet that the team will lose by less than the predicted amount (ATS), or get better than even-money odds that it will win the game outright. For example, if a team is a 2-1 underdog, you can bet $100 that the team will win. If it wins, you win $200 plus receive your original $100 wager back. 041b061a72